Social, cultural and religious conflicts roiled the cauldron of politics in the 17th century. When a leader lost an election one month, he might lose a vital organ the next. Energetic partisans altered more than one national destiny with elective surgery on the body politic…and, that was only domestic political violence. Emerging European empires raised the level of international violence worldwide. The Short-Docs here explore the turbulent politics of the 17th century and how they changed our world.

Jonathan Israel on the Results of the Treaty of Münster
Jonathan Israel, Professor of History at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton, NJ, discusses how the Treaty of Münster affected commerce and thus caused animosity between the English and the Dutch.


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